Most approaches to machine learning from electronic health data can only predict a single endpoint. Here, we present an alternative that uses unsupervised deep learning to simulate detailed patient trajectories. We use data comprising 18-month trajectories of 44 clinical variables from 1908 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease to train a model for personalized forecasting of disease progression. We simulate synthetic patient data including the evolution of each sub-component of cognitive exams, laboratory tests, and their associations with baseline clinical characteristics, generating both predictions and their confidence intervals. Our unsupervised model predicts changes in total ADAS-Cog scores with the same accuracy as specifically trained supervised models and identifies sub-components associated with word recall as predictive of progression. The ability to simultaneously simulate dozens of patient characteristics is a crucial step towards personalized medicine for Alzheimer's Disease.
Transcriptional regulation is extremely complicated. Unfortunately, so is working with transcriptional data. Genes can be referred to using a multitude of different identifiers and are assigned to an ever increasing number of categories. Gene expression data may be available in a variety of units (e.g, counts, RPKMs, TPMs). Batch effects dominate signal, but metadata may not be available. Most of the tools are written in R. Here, we introduce a library, genemunge, that makes it easier to work with transcriptional data in python. This includes translating between various types of gene names, accessing Gene Ontology (GO) information, obtaining expression levels of genes in healthy tissue, correcting for batch effects, and using prior knowledge to select sets of genes for further analysis. Code for genemunge is freely available on Github (http://github.com/unlearnai/genemunge).
Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) are a class of generative neural network that are typically trained to maximize a log-likelihood objective function. We argue that likelihood-based training strategies may fail because the objective does not sufficiently penalize models that place a high probability in regions where the training data distribution has low probability. To overcome this problem, we introduce Boltzmann Encoded Adversarial Machines (BEAMs). A BEAM is an RBM trained against an adversary that uses the hidden layer activations of the RBM to discriminate between the training data and the probability distribution generated by the model. We present experiments demonstrating that BEAMs outperform RBMs and GANs on multiple benchmarks.
Machine Learning (ML) is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of modern research and application. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the core concepts and tools of machine learning in a manner easily understood and intuitive to physicists. The review begins by covering fundamental concepts in ML and modern statistics such as the bias-variance tradeoff, overfitting, regularization, and generalization before moving on to more advanced topics in both supervised and unsupervised learning. Topics covered in the review include ensemble models, deep learning and neural networks, clustering and data visualization, energy-based models (including MaxEnt models and Restricted Boltzmann Machines), and variational methods. Throughout, we emphasize the many natural connections between ML and statistical physics. A notable aspect of the review is the use of Python notebooks to introduce modern ML/statistical packages to readers using physics-inspired datasets (the Ising Model and Monte-Carlo simulations of supersymmetric decays of proton-proton collisions). We conclude with an extended outlook discussing possible uses of machine learning for furthering our understanding of the physical world as well as open problems in ML where physicists maybe able to contribute. (Notebooks are available here)